Lung volumes are subdivided into static and dynamic lung volumes static lung volumes are measured by methods which are based on the completeness of respiratory manoeuvres so that the velocity of the manoeuvres should be adjusted accordingly the measurements taken during fast breathing movements are described as dynamic lung volumes and as forced inspiratory and expiratory flows. Stocks j hislop a sonnappa s 2013 early lung development lifelong effect on respiratory health and disease lancet respir med 1 728 42 pmid 24429276 doi gauthier tw brown la 2017 in utero alcohol effects on foetal neonatal and childhood lung disease paediatr respir rev 21 34 37 pmid 27613232 doi rackley cr stripp . Sleep disturbance is common in a range of chronic diseases including restrictive lung diseases and asthma sleep apnoea syndrome cardiovascular disease including heart failure gastrointestinal disorders pain disorders renal disorders and cancer 3 83 85 over and above levels observed in age matched general populations research is now ongoing in a number of fields to better understand . The acute respiratory distress syndrome ards is a common cause of respiratory failure in critically ill patients and is defined by the acute onset of noncardiogenic pulmonary oedema hypoxaemia
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